Take Care How You Kill Your Grubs–It May Wipe Out the Bees

From the University of Maryland Extension Service:

European honey bees, native bee species, and other pollinators in Maryland have suffered population losses in recent years. This has led to increased scrutiny of a widely used class of insecticides, known as neonicotinoids. Public concerns resulted in the passage of the Pollinator Protection Act of 2016 by the Maryland General Assembly. The law went into effect on January 1, 2018 and restricts the sales and use of neonicotinoid pesticides. Only farmers and certified pesticide applicators (or people working under their supervision) can apply neonicotinoid pesticides outdoors. So while neonicotinoid products may appear on store shelves in Maryland they cannot be applied outdoors by gardeners.


Bumble bee. Photo: David Cappert, Bugwood.org

What are neonicotinoid insecticides?

  • Kill insects by causing nervous system excitation, resulting in paralysis and death. Their chemical structure is similar to nicotine.
  • Active ingredients of neonicotinoids: acetamiprid, clothianidin, cyantraniliprole, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, nitenpyram, sulfoxaflor, thiacloprid, thiamethoxam.
  • Systemic action: the active ingredient is absorbed by leaves, stems, and roots and moves through the plant’s vascular system.
  • Persist in plants from months to multiple seasons depending on active ingredient, application rate, plant species, and environmental conditions.
  • Low risks to people, mammals, and other vertebrates. Imidacloprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, thiamethoxam are considered by the US EPA to be highly toxic to honey bees. Acetamiprid is the least toxic neonicotinoid for bees but is more toxic to mammals (it’s on the US EPA’s reduced risk list).
  • Used by commercial growers and gardeners around the world. Some products are labeled for controlling fleas and lice on dogs and cats while others are labeled to control pests of turf, ornamental plants, and food plants.
  • Products may be applied to soil, seeds, and foliage, sprayed on bark, or injected into trees. Research has shown that neonicotinoids can move into pollen, nectar, and fruits.

Local notes from GreenFrederick.org:

Home Depot provides the following list on their website of the  products that contain these insecticides, alternatives, and their policy on using them on their own plants.

We unknowingly purchased this product late this spring to kill grubs in our yard, and found that it contains trichlorfon, one of the offending ingredients. Needless to say it was taken back without use!

Lowes stopped selling these insecticides in 2015.

Stadler Nursery in Jefferson had this to offer:

 Mainly what we can use now are products containing pyrethrins, sulfur, insecticidal soaps, and horticultural oils (these are generally touted as “natural/organic” options), as well as spinosad and Sevin (carbaryl) spray. They are available in a variety of constitutions listed for specific pests/diseases and for specific plants/crops.

It is important to note that, in addition to correctly identifying the pest before applying any treatment, any product should only be used according to the label instructions and for the pests listed within the label.

Also, Certified Pesticide Applicators have access to more effective treatments for heavy infestations and/or pervasive pests and diseases and they are the only professionals who are authorized  (by MD law) to provide advice on treatment options (i.e. even we at the garden center have to  identify the issue then read from the label before making recommendations).

Mother Nature Network –,Here’s a great article about the subject that includes info that Lowes stopped selling these in 2015.

According to Texas State Extension, neonicotinoids are most often used to control certain beetles (like white grub larvae in lawns), fleas (Advantage flea control products, and nitenpyram pills for pets), certain wood boring pests, flies (fly baits), cockroaches and others.

Are they harming bees?

  • The consensus among researchers is that the interaction of multiple stressors and factors has contributed to honey bee and native bee population declines. These include parasites (especially varroa mite in honeybees), habitat loss, pesticides, climate change, and diseases.
  • There is no evidence that neonicotinoids caused colony collapse disorder, and the role of neonicotinoids in high honey bee mortality is not clear. Researchers believe that neonicotinoids pose a greater threat to native bee species than to honey bees.
  • Pollinators can pick up neonicotinoids from treated plants by ingesting 1) nectar and pollen from flowers, 2) honeydew excreted by aphids and other sucking insects feeding on plants, or 3) water droplets pushed out of plant leaves and stems at night (guttation).
  • Exposure to neonicotinoids can produce sub-lethal effects such as impaired foraging, navigation, and reproduction.
  • The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency(link is external) has taken steps to reduce the risk of negative effects of neonicotinoids on non-target organisms. These include changes to pesticide labels regarding the timing of pesticide applications and other actions that will protect pollinators.

honey bee

Honey bee. Photo: Joseph Berger, Bugwood.org

What can I do to help pollinators?

Pollinators are essential for the reproduction of many native plant species, and to the production of food crops on farms and in gardens. Gardeners can help by reducing or eliminating pesticide use and growing plants that provide habitat, nectar and pollen for a wide range of pollinators.

  • Most plant problems are caused by a host of environmental and cultural factors, such as weather extremes, compacted soil, poor location or installation, crowding, winter injury, and over-mulching. Yet insects and diseases usually get the blame! Use our resources to learn how to diagnose and prevent problems, distinguish between beneficial and pest insects, and manage pest problems without pesticides.
  • If you decide to use a pesticide, follow these tips to reduce risks:
    • Select the least toxic product and avoid broad-spectrum pesticides that target a wide range of insects
    • Select products listed by the Organic Manufacturers Research Institute (OMRI) or are on EPA’s Reduced Risk list whenever possible
    • Carefully read and follow label directions
    • Avoid spraying open flowers
    • Spray in the evening when fewer pollinators are active
    • Wear protective clothing and gloves
  • Some large chain stores are responding to public interest and demand by either phasing out or eliminating the sale of plants treated with neonicotinoids.  Ask your local garden centers and nurseries about the pesticides that are used to produce the plants they sell.
  • Learn about and plant for pollinators! See other resources below.


2015. PLOS One.(link is external)Assessment of Chronic Sublethal Effects of Imidacloprid on Honey Bee Colony Health(link is external)

2016. Journal of Economic Entomology.(link is external)Survey and Risk Assessment of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Exposure to Neonicotinoid Pesticides in Urban, Rural, and Agricultural Settings(link is external)

2013. PLOS One.(link is external)Assessing Insecticide Hazard to Bumble Bees Foraging on Flowering Weeds in Treated Lawns(link is external)

2015.(link is external)Vermont Agency of Agriculture. Neonicotinoid Pesticides: Safety and Use(link is external).

Additional Resources

By Jon Traunfeld, Extension Specialist, University of Maryland Extension. Reviewed by Mike Raupp, Ph.D., Professor, UM Dept. of Entomology; Dennis vanEngelsdorp, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, UM Dept. of Entomology; Graduate students, UM Dept. of Entomology

Native Plants and a Middletown Wild Meadow

Just because you see a plant everywhere, and its attractive, doesn’t mean it’s the best thing for the local ecology.

An intensive project by a group of local volunteers and Maryland Native Plant educator, from the University of Maryland Extension Service, has proven that with hundreds of hours of labor restoring a meadow area along Wiles Branch in Middletown to its natural state—to attract pollinators and local insects who belong in the environment.

The efforts, according to Cindy Unangst, town planner and staff for the Town of Middletown’s Green Team, have been herculean: three events during the past year pulling up 600 square square feet of wild day lilies, as well as multiflora rose and poison ivy; that had choked out the native Creekside wetland meadow. (See wild daylilies below).

The project, proposed by the Master Gardeners two years ago when a local gardener, Ronald Dudley, hoped to plant to attract more bees and butterflies to the area around the popular sports fields at the park. They called in Dr. Sara Tangren, Native Plant Educator, for advice and assistance. “We came to realize the woodlands around the park were already a wet meadow community,” she said. “The native pollinators were buried among the daylilies, which are gorgeous and cheerful, but not at all supportive of pollinators.”

They began working on the project last year after she completed another project in Prince Georges County and turned her attention to Middletown to supervise the hand-pulling of the stubborn plants.

“The areas adjacent to our meadow plot under construction have a lot more invasive da lillies coming up than in our plot where we had hand-pulled them last year,” said Cindy (see photo).

       Area cleared by volunteers, right

And last month, the invasives had to be repulled and a portion of the acreage carefully sprayed with an herbicide because volunteers could not keep up with the entire area. Dr. Tangren said that professional horticulturists carefully target the herbicide on the stem of the invasive, so it will not reach other plants or groundwater.

Now, thanks to the master gardeners’ collection of native plants, the invasives have been replaced with fall aster, great blue lobelia, cutweed coneflower, spring beauties, and a rare species of beebalm. “We are restoring and rejuveninating,” Dr. Tangren said.

We’ll check back in a few months to see how the area is doing!